Internet and Electronic Mail (e-mail) | UGC NET Exam

Free Study Material of Information & Communication Technology

UGC NET Paper 1


The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link several billion devices worldwide. It is also known as “network of networks” that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks.

Various Applications of the Internet are:

  • Exchange messages using e-mail (Electronic mail).
  • Transfer files as well as software.
  • Browse through information on any topic on the web.
  • Communicate in real time (chat) with others connected to the internet.
  • Search databases of government, individuals and organizations.
  • Read news available from leading news groups.
  • Send or receive animation and picture files from distant places.
  • Set up a site with information about your company’s products and services.

Download Unit-VIII (ICT) in PDF with 500+ MCQs ⇒  BUY NOW  (Min ₹49)

Complete Units of Paper 1 in PDF with MCQs ⇒ BUY NOW

The World Wide Web commonly known as the Web or www developed founded by Tim Berners – Lee in 1989, is a system of interlinked hypertext documents that are accessed via the Internet. These multimedia pages are ever- changing.

  • A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.

Ex. WorldWideWeb( First Web Browser), Netscape, Internet Explorer, Opera, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Google Chrome,


Various features of a Web Browser are:

  • Menu bar: The menu bar, located at the very top of the screen, can be accessed using the mouse. Actions that are in black can be performed, while actions that cannot be performed will be in gray or lightened.
  • Tool bar: The tool bar is located at the top of the browser; it contains navigational buttons for the Web. Basic functions of these buttons include:
Command Function
Home Opens or returns to starting page
Back Takes you to the previous page
Forward Takes you to the next page
Print Prints current page
Stop Stops loading a page
Reload Refresh/redisplays the current page
Search Accesses search engine


  • Location bar: The location bar, below the toolbar, is a box labelled “Location,” “GoTo,” or “Address.” You can type in a site’s address, and press the Return or Enter key to open the site.
  • Status bar: The status bar is located at the very bottom of the browser window. You can watch the progress of a web page download to determine if the host computer has been contacted and text and images are being downloaded.
  • Scroll bar: The scroll bar is the vertical bar located on the right of the browser window. You can scroll up and down a web page by placing the cursor on the slider control and holding down the mouse button.
  • A website is a set of related web pages served from a single web domain.
  • The Uniform Resource Locator abbreviated as URL is the Address for websites. Most of them begin with http (HyperText Transfer Protocol), followed by a colon and two. In most web browsers, the URL of a web page is displayed on top inside an address bar. An example of a typical URL would be“.
  • A Homepage, index page, or main page is a page on a website.
  • A Hyperlink is a reference to data that the reader can directly follow either by clicking or by hovering or that is followed automatically.
  • Downloading means to receive data to a local system from a remote system, or to initiate such a data transfer.
  • Uploading refers to the sending of data from a local system to a remote system such as a server or another client with the intent that the remote system should store a copy of the data being transferred.


Electronic Mail (e-mail) was invented by “John Von Neumann“. Electronic Mail transfers the data from one system to another system in the form of messages (test), pictures (images), Multimedia messages.


An e-mail address normally consists of Three parts.

  1. Name of the User
  2. “@” Sign
  3. 3rd part comes after @ sign and it is the name of the DNS.

                                    Example :  cbsenetonline   @       gmail  .com


User Name       “@”  sign    Domain Name System (DNS)


To view an e-mail, you have to use e-mail software is “Outlook Express”.

In the e-mail window, you can find “Folder Pane” at the left side of the window. It has set of folders named as Composed email, Inbox, Out Box, Sent Items, Drafts, Trash, Spam etc.,

  • Inbox is used to store incoming
  • Outbox is used to store outgoing email before it is
  • Sent Items is used to store email that has already been
  • Deleted Items (Trash) is used to store deleted email up to 30

*. A draft folder is used to store email that is not yet complete.

  • Spam is used to store the unsolicited bulk e-mail up to 30
  • Compose Mail is use to create a new
  • To : To type the e-mail address of the person to whom you want to send an email in this
  • Subject : To type a few words about the subject of the letter you want to
  • CC (Carbon Copy) : To type the e-mail address of the other recipients in this box, each address is separated by a comma (,). When you complete the mail and click the “Send” button, then the mail will automatically be sent to all the recipients. Here, all the recipients will know who the other recipients
  • BCC ( Band Carbon Copy) or (Blind Curtsey Copy) : If you don’t want them to know who else have received copies, you can type the addresses in the BCC text In this case, only you (the sender) will know the identity of all the recipients of mail.
  • Reply : You can send your reply using the same The subject box will have the same subject, but with the words “Re:” before it.
  • Forward : You can send the forward message using the same The subject box will have the same subject, but with the words “Fwd:” before it.
  • An email attachment is a computer file sent along with an email message. One or more files can be attached to any email message, and be sent along with it to the first email was sent by Ray Tomlinson to himself in 1971.
  • The Drafts folder retains copies of messages that you have started but are not yet ready to send.
  • Hotmail, a free e-mail service provided by Microsoft which was established in 1995 was co-founded by an Indian American entrepreneur Sabeer Bhatia along with Jack Smith in July of 1996.
  • An Internet Protocol address (also known as an IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network. It acts as an identifier for a computer. It is a unique address for every computer.
  • Top-level domain: Each part of a domain name contains certain information. The first field is the hostname, identifying a single computer or organization. The last field is the top-level domain, describing the type of organization and occasionally country of origin associated with the For e.g. – .com – Commercial, .edu – Educational.


  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
  • Internet Protocol (IP)
  • Post Office Protocol (POP3)
  • Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)


Function keys – A function key is a key on a computer or terminal keyboard which can be programmed so as to cause an operating system command interpreter or application program to perform certain actions, a form of soft key. For e.g. – F1 through F12 keys are known as function keys. Each key perform different functions.

Download Unit-VIII (ICT) in PDF with 500+ MCQs ⇒  BUY NOW  (Min ₹49)

Complete Units of Paper 1 in PDF with MCQs ⇒ BUY NOW

Related Posts:

Free Complete Study Materials for UGC NET Paper 1

Updated Syllabus for UGC NET Exam of All Subjects

Free Solved Question Papers for UGC NET Paper 1


Disclaimer – The study materials are provided from the personal notes of a JRF Qualified. Need suggestions for any publishing or conceptual mistakes. Feel free to comments with your suggestions or clarifications.