Free Study Material of Computer Security and E-Commerce (ICT) | UGC NET

Free Study Material of Information & Communication Technology

UGC NET Paper 1




Security: Security controls access to data in files and permits only authorized use of terminals and other equipment. Control is usually through various levels of passwords assigned on the basis of the need to know.

Typical approaches to improving Computer security can include the following :

  • Physically limit access to computers to only those who will not compromise security.
  • Hardware Mechanisms that impose rules on computer programs, thus avoiding depending on computer programs for computer security.
  • Operating system Mechanisms that impose rules on programs to avoid trusting Computer Programs.
  • Programming strategies to make computer programs dependable and resist supervision.

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Security Tools:

Firewall: A firewall is a set of related programs, located at a network gateway server, that protects the resources of a private network from users of other networks. Firewall can either be hardware devices or software programs. They provide protection from Online intrusions. A firewall is designed to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing your computer. All messages entering your Computer from the Internet pass through the firewall which examines each message. The firewall blocks any message that was not specifically requested by your system.


Encryption: It can be used to protect the message from unauthorized users. It can be done in several ways by switching the characters around, replacing characters with others, and even removing characters from the message.


Cryptographic Techniques: It can be used to defend data in transit between systems reducing the probability that data exchanged between systems can be intercepted or modified. Secure crypto processors can be used to leverage physical security techniques into detecting the security of the system. Strong authentication techniques can be used to ensure that communication end-points are who they say they are.


Intrusion – Detection – System: It can be scan a network for people that are on the network but who should not be there or redoing things that they should not be doing. For example, trying a lot of passwords to gain access to the network.


Pinging: The Ping application can be used by potential crackers to find if an IP address is reachable. If a cracker finds a computer they can try a port scan to detect and attack services on that computer.


Anti-Virus Software: Anti-virus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify, thwart and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software (Malware). The term “Antivirus” is used because it is designed exclusively to combat computer viruses.


Antivirus software typically uses two different approaches to accomplish this:

☛ Examining (Scanning) files to look for known viruses matching definitions in a virus dictionary.

☛ Identifying suspicious behaviour from any computer program which might indicate infections.


VIRUS: The full form is Vital Information Resource Under Siege”. A computer virus is a computer program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. Virus program that runs on your computer without your knowledge and can cause damage to your files. A common way to receive a virus is through an attachment via e-mail.


Worm: Worm is a self-replicating program. It replicates itself to new computers using the flaws and then begins scanning and replicating again. The difference between a virus and worm is that a worm does not create copies of itself on one system. It propagates through computer networks.


Trojan Horse: It is a program in which malicious or harmful code is contained inside apparently harmless programming or data in such a way that it can get control and do its chosen form of damage. Trojan Horses cannot replicate automatically. A Trojan horse can be used to set up a backdoor in a computer system so that the intruder can return later and gain access.


Malware (Malicious Software): It is a software designed specifically to damage or disrupt a system such as a virus or Trojan horse.


Spyware: Spyware is a software that performs actions such as advertising, collecting personal data, or changing the configuration of your computer, usually without obtaining your consent. Spyware that displays advertisements and tracks your personal information is known as “Adware”.


Spam: E-mail spam also known as “Junk e-mail” or “Unsolicited Bulk e-mail (UBE), is a subset of spam that involves nearly identical messages sent to numerous recipients by e-mail.


Phishing: Phishing is a fraudulent activity of acquiring sensitive information by the use of a fake identity during electronic communication.


Spoofing: It occurs when the sender of an e-mail message pretends to be someone else, they falsely manipulate the “From” field in an e-mail. This is usually done to make you release sensitive information.


Keyloggers: Keylogger is a software program designed to record (log) every keystroke on the machine on which it runs. Keylogger is also known as “Key Stroke logger” or “System Monitor”.


Packet Sniffer: A packet sniffer is an application that captures TCP/IP data packets, which can maliciously be used to capture passwords and other data while it is in transit either within the computer or over the network.


RootKit: A root kit is a computer program that enables administrator – level access to a computer or computer network. A cracker installs a rootkit on a computer after first obtaining user-level access, either by exploiting a known vulnerability or cracking a password. Once the rootkit is installed, it allows the hacker to mask intrusion and gain root or privileged access to the computer.


Cybercrime: It contains all criminal offenses which are committed with the aid of communication devices in a network.

Examples are:

  • Unauthorized access, malicious code, and denial-of-service
  • Theft of service and certain financial
  • Spamming and copyright crimes, particularly those facilitated through peer-to-peer
  • Hacking, phishing, identify theft, child pornography, online gambling securities

Hacking: Hacking is the activity of programmatically gaining access to a computer application that is otherwise inaccessible. The act of gaining unauthorised access to a computer is known as “Hacking”.

Hacker: A Hacker is someone involved in computer security specializing in the discovery of exploits in systems in obtaining or preventing unauthorized access to systems through skills, tactics and detailed knowledge.

Polymorphic Virus: A polymorphic virus modifies its program code each time it attaches itself to another program or file.


E-Commerce (Electronic Commerce): E-Commerce is the buying and selling of goods and services on the internet. The visitor to the site can sell or buy any product or service online. The transactions are enabled through credit cards, Debit cards, etc.

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E-Business (Electronic Business): E-Business is the administration of conducting business via the Internet. This would include the buying and selling of goods and services, along with providing technical or customer support through the Internet. E-Business is used in conjunction with E-Commerce but includes services in addition to the sale of goods.

E-Administration: The use of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) to modernize the state, the creation of data repositories for MIS (Management Information Systems), computerisation of records.

E-Services: the emphasis here is to bring the state closer to the citizens. Examples include the provision of online services. E-Services and E-Administration together constitute what is generally termed e-governance.

E-Governance: The use of IT to improve the ability of government to address the needs of society. It includes the publishing of policy and programme related information to transact with citizens. It extends beyond the provision of online services and use of IT for strategic planning and reaching development goals of the government.

E-Democracy: The use of IT to facilitate the ability of all sections of society to participate in the governance of the state. The remit is much broader here with a stated emphasis on transparency’, accountability and participation. Examples are online disclosure policies, online grievance redress forums, and e-referendums.

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT): A cashless approach used to pay for goods and services. Electronic signals between computers are used to adjust the accounts of the parties involved in a transaction. Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) is also known as “Electronic Banking (E-Banking)”. E-Banking is the use of electronic means to transfer funds directly from one account to another, rather than by cheque or cash.

Internet Banking or Online Banking: internet Banking allows customers to conduct financial transactions on a secure website operated by their retail or virtual bank, credit union or building society.

E-Marketing: E-Marketing is also known as Internet Marketing, Digital Marketing, Web Marketing, Online Marketing, Search Marketing, I-Marketing (Internet Marketing) is the Marketing of products or services over the Internet.

E-Procurement (Supplier exchange): E-Procurement is more than just a system for making purchases online. A properly implemented system can connect companies and their business processes directly with suppliers while managing all interactions between them. Examples are bids, management correspondence, questions and answers, previous pricing and multiple emails sent to multiple participants.


Types of E-Commerce:

  1. Business to Customer (B2C): The basic concept of this model is to sell the product online to the customers. It provides direct selling through online. B2C is the indirect trade between the company and consumers. Directly interact with the customers is the main difference with other business models.
  2. Business to Business (B2B): It is similar to manufacturer issuing goods to the retailer or whole- This model defines that Buyer and seller are two different entities. It consists of the longest form of E-Commerce. It is one of the cost-effective ways to sell out product throughout the world.
  3. Customer to Customer (C2C): It helps the online dealing of goods or services among though there are no major parties needed but the parties will not fulfill the transactions without the program which is supplied by the online market dealer such as eBay.
  4. Peer to Peer (P2P): It is a discipline that deals itself, which assists people to instantly shares related computer files and computer sources without having to interact with central
  5. M-Commerce: This model deals with conducting the transactions with the help of mobile. The mobile consumers can interact with each other and can lead the business. M-Commerce (Mobile Commerce) involves the change of ownership or rights to utilize goods and related services.


Companies and Their Founders :

Microsoft ⇒                                       Bill gates

Google   ⇒                                         Sergey Brain and Larrypase (1997)

Yahoo  ⇒                                           Journeying and David(1994)

Facebook   ⇒                                    Mark Zuckerberg

Apple  ⇒                                            Steve Jobs

Oracle ⇒                                           Tim Nerveski

Wikipedia   ⇒                                    Jimmy Wales

Twitter ⇒                                           Bizz Stone

Instagram ⇒                                      Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger

Whatsapp ⇒                                      Brian Acton and Jan Koum

YouTube ⇒                                        Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim




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Disclaimer – The study materials are provided from the personal notes of a JRF Qualified. Need suggestions for any publishing or conceptual mistakes. Feel free to comments with your suggestions or clarifications.