Study Material of Teaching Aptitude UGC NET Paper 1





Teaching is a complex process which brings socially desirable behavioral change in a person. Teaching is a part of teaching-learning process. It is required to bring certain changes in a person according to the need of his society and environment in which he is living. ‘Teaching is not an act as it is dynamic in nature so it is termed as a process. It is also not a fundamental concept as it is greatly influenced by social and human factors.

In brief, a proper definition of teaching should-

(i) Identify whether teaching is a process or product

(ii) Clearly indicate its constitutional factors

(iii) Reveal objectives, and

(iv) Say something about its organizational and structural aspect.

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Nature and Characteristics of Teaching

Nature of teaching may be described as

  • Dynamic, Social and Humane. Teaching is not a fundamental concept because it is greatly influenced by social and human factors which are dynamic in themselves.
  • Both, Art and Science. Teaching is both art and science. It calls for the exercise of talent and creativity making it an art and involving repertoire of techniques, procedures, and skills which can be studied systematically, described and improved making it science.
  • Diverse in Application. In application, teaching is of diverse in nature. It may have various forms as formal, informal, directional, instructional, formational, training, conditioning, in­doctrination, talking, showing, doing, remedial, etc.

Characteristics of teaching may be described as

  • A system of actions. Teaching is a system of actions varied in form and related with content and pupil behaviour under the prevailing physical and social conditions.
  • A professional activity. It is a professional activity involving teacher and student with a view to the development of students’ personality. Professionalism helps students in being regular and making harmony with their objects towards those they are concentrated.
  • Subjected to analysis and assessment. Teaching can be analysed and assessed and analysis and assessment provide feedback for further improvement.
  • An interactive process. Teaching is highly dominated by communication skill. Teaching is an interactive process carried with purpose and objectives.
  • A specialized task. It is a specialized task and may be taken as a set of skills for realization of certain objectives.
  • A collection of various modes. Teaching is a collection of various modes of itself. It is a broader term. Terms like conditioning, training, instruction, indoctrination denote a kind of teaching. They are a part of teaching but not a synonym with teaching. These are various modes of teaching contributing towards teaching.


The Aim of Teaching

The aims of teaching with respect to its various modes, are as follows-

  • Teaching – To bring changes in the behaviour of students.
  • Conditioning – To improve the learning skills of students.
  • Training – Shaping behaviour and conduct.
  • Instruction – Acquisition of knowledge.
  • Indoctrination – Formation of belief.

Objectives of Teaching

Major objectives of teaching are as follows :

  • To bring desired changes in pupils.
  • To shape behaviour and conduct.
  • Acquisition of knowledge
  • To improve the learning skills of students.
  • Formation of belief.
  • To provide a social and efficient member of society. Four Modern Concepts of Teaching


Different Variables of Teaching

Teaching process involves the following variables.

  1. Dependent Variable

The student is a dependent variable. He is subjected to changes and developments through the efforts of the teacher and teaching process. In the process of teaching, the dependent variable plays the functional or active part.

  1. Independent Variable

The teacher is an independent variable. He is responsible for the functioning of students, the dependent variables. He is free to act in the process while students are quite dependent on him. The teacher plans, organizes, leads and controls the process of teaching. Like dependent variables, independent variables also play the functional or active part.

  1. Intervening Variables

There is need of desirable interaction between the dependent and the independent variable to achieve the goals of teaching. This role is played by the intervening variables. The content of teaching, methods and techniques, tactics and strategies management of instructional material and teaching environments, etc., are the Intervening Variables.


Basic Requirements of Teaching

Basic requirements of teaching are

  1. All three variables of teaching
  2. Professionalism
  3. Suitable environment
  4. Teacher-student relationship
  5. Student’s discipline
  6. Teacher’s devotion to teaching, and also, on the other hand, student’s devotion to learning.

Learner’s Characteristics

  • Habit of Readiness
  • Habit of Exercise
  • Habit of Effect
  • Attitudes and Habits
  • Absence of anger and jealousy among learners
  • Slow Beginning and Gradual Development


Factors Affecting Teaching

Following factors affect teaching.

  • All the three variables, i.e., dependent, independent and intervening variables
  • Teacher-student relationship
  • Methods of teaching used;
  • Teacher-administration relationship; and
  • The social environment.


Psychology Theories

Much of w hat we know about human thought and behavior has emerged thanks to various psychology theories. For example, behavioral theories demonstrated how conditioning can be used to learn new information and behaviors. Psychology students typically spend a great deal of time studying these different theories. Some theories have fallen out of favor, while others remain widely accepted, but all have contributed tremendously to our understanding of human thought and behavior. By learning more about these theories, you can gain a deeper and richer understanding of psychology’s past, present, and future.

  1. Behavioral Theories
  2. Cognitive Theories
  3. Developmental Theories
  4. Humanist Theories
  5. Personality Theories
  6. Social Psychology Theories
  7. Learning Theories
  1. Behavioral Theories

Behavioral psychology, also known as behaviorism, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Advocated by famous psychologists such as John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, behavioral theories dominated psychology during the early half of the twentieth century. Today, behavioral techniques are still widely used in therapeutic settings to help clients learn new skills and behaviors. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. Behaviorists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shape our behaviors.

  1. Cognitive Theories

Cognitive theories of psychology are focused on internal states, such as motivation, problem-solving, decision-making, thinking, and attention. Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember and learn. As part of the larger field of cognitive science, this branch of psychology is related to other disciplines including neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics. The core focus of cognitive psychology is on how people acquire, process and store information. There are numerous practical applications for cognitive research, such as improving memory, increasing decision-making accuracy and structuring educational curricula to enhance learning.

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  1. Developmental Theories

Theories of development provide a framework for thinking about human growth, development, and learning. If you have ever wondered about what motivates human thought and behaviour, understanding these theories can provide useful insight into individuals and society.

  1. Humanist Theories

Humanistic psychology theories began to grow in popularity during the 1950s. While earlier theories often focused on abnormal behavior and psychological problems, humanist theories instead emphasized the basic goodness of human beings. Some of the major humanist theorists include Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.

  1. Personality Theories

Almost every day we describe and assess the personalities of the people around us. Whether we realize it or not, these daily musings on how and why people behave as they do are similar to w hat personality psychologists do. Personality psychology looks at the patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that make a person unique. Some of the best known theories in psychology are devoted to the subject of personality. Almost everyday we describe and assess the personalities of the people around us. Whether w e realize it or not, these daily musings on how and why people behave as they do are similar to w hat personality psychologists do.

  1. Social Psychology Theories

Social psychology is focused on helping us understand and explain social behavior. Social theories are generally centered on specific social phenomena, including group behavior, social influence, love and much more. Social psychology looks at a wide range of social topics, including group behavior, social perception, leadership, nonverbal behavior, conformity, aggression and prejudice. It is important to note that social psychology is not just about looking at social influences. Social perception and social interaction are also vital to understanding social behavior.

  1. Learning Theories

Learning theories focus on how people learning and acquire new knowledge. This is an interdisciplinary topic of interest that often draws upon information from psychology, education, instructional design, and other areas.


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Disclaimer – The study materials are provided from the personal notes of a JRF Qualified. Need suggestions for any publishing or conceptual mistakes. Feel free to comments with your suggestions or clarifications.