FREE STUDY MATERIAL OF TEACHING APTITUDE
FOR CBSE UGC NET PAPER 1
METHODS OF TEACHING
The traditional or innovative methods of teaching are critically examined, evaluated and some modifications in the delivery of knowledge are suggested. As such, the strengths and weaknesses of each teaching methodology are identified and probable modifications that can be included in traditional methods are suggested.
- TRADITIONAL TEACHING METHOD – AN EVALUATION
In the pre-technology education context, the teacher is the sender or the source, the educational material is the information or message, and the student is the receiver of the information. In terms of the delivery medium, the educator can deliver the message via the “chalk-and- talk” method and overhead projector (OHP) transparencies. This directed instruction model has its foundations embedded in the behavioral learning perspective and it is a popular technique, which has been used for decades as an educational strategy in all institutions of learning.
Some limitations which may prevail in traditional teaching method are:
- Teaching in classroom using chalk and talk is “one way flow” of information.
- Teachers often continuously talk for an hour without knowing students response and feedback.
- The material presented is only based on lecturer notes and textbooks.
- Teaching and learning are concentrated on “plug and play” method rather than practical aspects.
- The handwriting of the lecturer decides the fate of the subject.
- There is insufficient interaction with students in classroom.
- More emphasis has been given on theory w ithout any practical and real life time situations.
- Learning through memorization but not understanding.
- Marks oriented rather than result oriented.
Methods of Teaching
Teaching is both, art and science. It requires a mastermind creativity that the students of different nature and community should be handled carefully. Therefore, it is an art. On the other hand, it calls for exercise of talent and creativity making it and involving repertoire of techniques, procedures and skills which can be studied systematically, described and improved making it science. The teaching profession has successfully faced many challenges and transformations and adopted recent sophistications and technological innovations suitably. All these developments have helped the teaching community to regain a high status in academic campuses worldwide. The principles of learning and teaching are the tools available to a teacher to teach in a class room or through TV. Successful teaching needs systematic planning and careful execution. Teaching is done in sequential steps. These steps are called the phases. Teaching act follows in three phases.
- Pre-active phase. It is the planning phase.
- Inter-Active Phase. It concerns with the implementation and carrying out what has been planned. Therefore, it is a stage of actual teaching.
- Post-Active Phase. This phase concerns with the evaluation activities which serves as feed-back for improvement.
There are five steps involved in the method of teaching.
Methods of Teaching According to different Schools of Philosophy
- Methods by idealism
Buttler is right when he says, “Idealists consider themselves creators and determiners of methods, not devotees of some one method.” They speak of the general nature of teaching methods only. They do not specify any method to be adopted in the centres of learning. Therefore, method is the weakest aspect of the philosophy of idealism. Different idealists have adopted different methods. Socrates laid adopted the question method. Plato, his disciple, changed question method into conversational method and made it logical. His disciple, Aristotle followed inductive and deductive methods. Hegel adopted logical method. Pestalozzi adopted self-activity method. Herbart on methods says, “I have no conception of education without instruction and do not acknowledge any instruction which does not educate.” He also takes the help of discussion method and at times suggests debate as a technique of teaching.
For classroom practice, idealists would encourage the use of the discussion and the lecture methods. The discussion method of learning which is popularly known as the socratic method involves questioning and discussion. It was the method of learning in the upanishadic period of Indian education It is also known as the ‘Informal dialectic’ method. Idealists value the use of well-prepared and presented lectures. Lecture should not be a phonographic recitation on facts but a scholarly exposition. It should also not be delivered in an autocratic way. It should be participatory.
- Methods by Naturalism
Rousseau considers education as a process of living. Being a process, it lasts throughout life or at least from birth to adult life. It finds its meaning for any particular stage, not on a future state. It is not artificial, harsh, unsympathetic, repressive of all natural inclinations, by which “the child as a “little man” is made into a “big man” through the hands of the teacher. Development of the child through natural process is an enjoyable, rational, harmoniously balanced, ^ useful and hence natural life. The aim of education is achieved not in adult life, but in each succeeding day, whenever life has its natural activities, its appropriate duties and its corresponding satisfaction. Thus stress is given on direct experience of things. Rousseau, therefore says, “Give your scholar no verbal lessons: he should be taught by experience alone.
- Pragmatic Methods
The focus of pragmatic methods of teaching is on the ‘child-in-society’ and his activities therein rather than the book, the teacher, the subject or exclusively the child-of-nature. Learning always occurs as a result of an activity. The teacher has to capitalize upon the activities of children to direct the teaching-learning process. Activity is the basis of all teaching. The child should be enabled to find out information by himself instead of pouring information on him. Children should be encouraged to discover and investigate the facts of life. Education must develop the laboratory habit of mind. The method of teaching should be experimental.
- Existentialist Methods
The method of teaching advocated by existentialism is of asking questions, refining answers, asking more questions and pushing the issue until some acceptable conclusion was reached. Existentialists favoured the Socratic approach to teaching, as it was inductive, proceeding from the immediate and particular to the abstract and universal. In this method, knowledge and wisdom are gained through personal relationships between the teacher and the pupil. They give emphasis on individual attention. Since emphasis is given on individual attention, they prefer home education to school education.
In existentialist system the teacher cannot impose upon children his own ideas, ideals, ideologies and values. Religious education may be imparted, provided there is no scope for indoctrinations. They advocate a method of teaching which can develop creativity among the pupils.
Methods of Teaching as recommended by Secondary Education Commission (1952-53)
- The commission suggested that methods of teaching should provide ample opportunities for students to develop clear thinking and clear expression.
- Individual-centred methods and opportunities for practical application of knowledge should be adopted.
- Activity method and project method should be used in school practice.
- Establishing of Experimental and Demonstration schools and training in activities such asscout movement, N.C.C., first aid should be encouraged.
Some Specific Methods of Teaching
- Inferential Problem Solving Technique
Inductive and deductive are two important procedures of systematic approaches to problem solving.
Steps in Inductive Method
- Recognition of the problem
- Searching for data
- Organisation of data
- Framing tentative solutions
Steps in Deductive Method
- Recognition of problem
- Searching for data
- Formulation of inferences
Team-teaching is also called co-operative teaching. This is a recent idea in the field of education. M.B. Naik said, “In a team-teaching method, two or more teachers make a plan of the subjects cooperatively, carry it out, and always evaluate its effects on the students periodically.” In team teaching, subject teachers give lectures to a big class. On every working, all the members of the team have a common assembly. Here they discuss the methods used by the fellow-teachers.
Micro-teaching is an innovative teaching technique. It is a new development in the field of teaching. The term micro-teaching was first coined by Dwight Allen of the Stanford University in 1963.
Features of micro-teaching
- It is a teacher training technique.
- It focuses on developing teaching skills.
- It reduces the classes size in five to ten students.
- The size of the topic is also reduced.
- Micro-teaching is a highly individualized training skill.
- It provides feedback for trainee’s performance.
- It is an effective device to prepare competent teachers.
- In this technique learners are provided with immediate knowledge of the correctness of response.
Steps in Micro-teaching
- Defining the skill
- Demonstrating the skill
- Planning the lesson
- Teaching the lesson
- Repeating the cycle till the desired level of skill is achieved.
- Question-Answer technique in teaching
No teacher of elementary or secondary subjects can succeed in his instruction, which has not a fair mastery of the art of questioning.
Purposes of questioning:
- To test the knowledge
- To locate the difficulty
- To arouse motivation
- To secure active participation of students.
- To apply knowledge
- To recapitulate the lesson learnt.
- To promote thinking and originality
- To increase self-confidence
- To maintain discipline
- To promote intellectual and social development.
Underlying the need of questioning Parkar Said. “Questioning is the key to all educative activities.”
Meaning of Teaching Aids
A teaching aid is something a classroom teacher uses in her class to help students improve reading and other skills, reinforce a skill, or to make learning fun. Teaching aids can be used in any of the core classes. There are several types of teaching aids to be utilized in a classroom.
Need of Teaching Aids
- Every individual has the tendency to forget. Proper use of teaching aids helps to retain more concepts
- Students can learn better when they are motivated properly through different teaching
- Teaching aids develop the proper image when the students see, hear taste and smell
- Teaching aids provide complete example for conceptual
- The teaching aids create the environment of interest for the
- Teaching aids helps to increase the vocabulary of the
- Teaching aids helps the teacher to get sometime and make learning permanent.
- Teaching aids provide direct experience to the
Types of Teaching Aids
There are many aids available these days. We may classify these aids as follows-
- Visual Aids
- Audio Aids
- Audio – Visual Aids
1) Visual Aids
The aids which use sense of vision are called Visual aids.
For example :- actual objects, models, pictures, charts, maps, flash cards, flannel board, bulletin board, chalkboard, overhead projector, slides etc. Out of these black board and chalk are the commonest ones.
2) Audio Aids
The aids that involve the sense of hearing are called Audio aids. For example: – radio, tape recorder, gramophone etc.
3) Audio – Visual Aids
The aids which involve the sense of vision as well as hearing are called Audio- Visual aids. For example – television, film projector, film strips etc.
IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING AIDS
Teaching aids play very important role in Teaching- Learning process.
1) Motivation- teaching aids motivate the students so that they can learn better.
2) Clarification – Through teaching aids, the teacher clarifies the subject matter more easily.
3) Discouragement of Cramming – teaching aids can facilitate the proper understanding to the students which discourage the act of cramming.
4) Increase the Vocabulary – Teaching aids helps to increase the vocabulary of the students more effectively.
5) Saves Time and Money – When the uses teaching aids, it saves him from the long explanations that may take time for students understand
6) Classroom Live and active – Teaching aids make the classroom live and active.
7) Avoids Dullness – This means the class becomes more active, lively and participatory
8) Direct Experience – Teaching aids provide direct experience to the students which make them learn easily
Evaluation is a device through which we can get an exact idea of what students actually achieve from their teaching-learning experiences. Following are some important evaluation systems:
Examination is the concern of the teacher, the greatest premium of parents and the first anxiety of the students. End products of all education efforts are appraised by evaluation.
Importance of Examinations
(i)Examinations help in testing the achievement of the pupils.
(ii)Examinations are also helpful in evaluating the individual interests, aptitudes, intelligence, physical, emotional, social and moral development.
(iii)They also provide an ease to classify the students, to provide guidance, to bring changes in curriculum and form the basis of admissions.
Dr. Radha Krishnan said, “if examination are necessary, thorough reform of these is still more necessary.”
- Psychological Evaluation
We evaluate personality because it helps us to know about the physical, mental, emotional and social behaviour of the individual, measurement of personality is also helpful in providing proper guidance to the students.
There are three methods of personality assessments namely – psychometric, projective and behavioural assessments.
- Philosophical Evaluation
There is much controversy about testing, grading and promotion in the field of education. Philosophers, who support conservative view on evaluation are of opinion that the intellectual development of the students can be judged in terms of their mastery of subject matter. The best means of determining the student’s intellectual progress is to discover how well he has learned the assigned material. To what extent he has memorized all the facts, vocabulary or formula of a particular subject. It also involves testing the mastery of principles and generalization to be derived from the subject. It may also test student’s ability to apply his knowledge to other situations. Thus the conservative school supports this evaluation of achievements.
The liberal school of thought gives emphasis on the development of the ‘who’s child’. It is not concerned with the academic achievement of the students. They take the help of varieties of techniques and methods to measure the personal and social development of the students and group in which they work. Thus evaluation is also a problem of philosophical analysis.
Disclaimer – The study materials are provided from the personal notes of a JRF Qualified. Need suggestions for any publishing or conceptual mistakes. Feel free to comments with your suggestions or clarifications.