FREE STUDY MATERIAL OF HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM OF
CBSE UGC NET PAPER 1
University and Higher Education System
Higher Education sector has witnessed a tremendous increase in the number of Universities/University level Institutions & Colleges since Independence. The number of Universities has increased 34 times from 20 in 1950 to 677 in 2014. The sector boasts of 46 Central Universities of which 40 are under the purview of Ministry of Human Resource Development, 318 State Universities, 185 State Private universities, 129 Deemed to be Universities, 51 Institutions of National Importance (established under Acts of Parliament) under MHRD (IITs – 16, NITs – 30 and IISERs – 5) and four Institutions (established under various State legislations). The number of colleges has also registered manifold increase of 74 times with just 500 in 1950 growing to 37,204, as on 31st March, 2013.
The quantum growth in the Higher Education sector is spear-headed by Universities, which are the highest seats of learning.
In India, “University” means a University established or incorporated by or under a Central Act, a Provincial Act or a State Act and includes any such institution as may, in consultation with the University concerned, be recognised by the University Grants Commission (UGC) in accordance with the regulations made in this regard under the UGC Act, 1956. Every year, millions of students from within the country and abroad, enter these portals mainly for their graduate, post-graduate studies while millions leave these portals for the world outside.
Higher Education is the shared responsibility of both the Centre and the States. The coordination and determination of standards in Universities & Colleges are entrusted to the UGC and other statutory regulatory bodies.
The Central Government provides grants to the UGC and establishes Central Universities/Institutions of National Importance in the country. The Central Government is also responsible for declaring an educational institution as “Deemed-to-be University” on the recommendations of the UGC.
At present, the main categories of University/University-level Institutions are :- Central Universities, State Universities, Deemed-to-be Universities and University-level institutions. These are described as follows:
A university established or incorporated by a Central Act.
A university established or incorporated by a Provincial Act or by a State Act.
A university established through a State/Central Act by a sponsoring body viz. A Society registered under the Societies Registration Act 1860, or any other corresponding law for the time being in force in a State or a Public Trust or a Company registered under Section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956.
An Institution Deemed to be University, commonly known as Deemed University, refers to a high-performing institution, which has been so declared by Central Government under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission (UGC) Act, 1956.
Institution of National Importance:
An Institution established by Act of Parliament and declared as Institution of National Importance.
Institution Under State Legislature Act:
An Institution established or incorporated by a State Legislature Act.
University Grants Commission(UGC)
The University Grants Commission is a statutory organization established by an Act of Parliament in 1956 for the coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of university education. Apart from providing grants to eligible universities and colleges, the Commission also advises the Central and State Governments on the measures which are necessary for the development of Higher Education. It functions from New Delhi as well as its Seven Regional offices located in Bangalore, Bhopal, Delhi, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Pune.
National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), New Delhi
NCERT is an organisation set up by the Government of India, with headquarters located at Sri Aurbindo Marg in New Delhi, to assist and advise the central and state governments on academic matters related to school education. It was established in 1961.
Inter University Centres (IUCs)
The UGC establishes autonomous Inter-University Centres within the university system under Clause 12(ccc) of the UGC Act. The objectives for setting up these centres are:
- To provide common advanced centralized facilities/services for universities which are not able to invest heavily in infrastructure and other inputs.
- To play a vital role in offering the best expertise in each field to teachers and researchers across the country.
- To provide access for research and teaching community to the state-of-the-art equipment and excellent library facilities which are comparable to international standards.
The Nuclear Science Centre at New Delhi (now called Inter University Accelerator Centre) was the first research centre established in 1994. As of today, six Inter University Centres are functioning within the university system, which is as follows:
- Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi
Inter University Accelerator Centre was the first Inter-University Centre to be established by the UGC in 1984. The primary objective of the Centre is to establish within the university system a world class facilities for accelerator based research. Its aim is to formulate common research programmes of research and development in collaboration with universities, IITs and other research institutions. It promotes group activities and human research development in experimental science and other branches of knowledge.
- Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astro-Physics (IUCAA), Pune
Information IUCAA, Pune was set up in 1988 as an autonomous centre of excellence to help initiate and nurture, research and developmental activities in Astronomy and Astrophysics in the University sector. IUCAA was set up with the basic purpose of providing advanced centralized facilities for subjects not adequately covered in the university departments and colleges.
- UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research (UGC-DAECSR), Indore
UGC-DAE was created in the year 1990 with the broad objective of developing competence and promoting research in frontline areas of science and technology in Indian Universities by providing institutional framework for optimum utilisation of major research facilities established by the department of Atomic Energy such as Dhruv Reactor of Mumbai, VECC at Kolkata and Synchrotron Radiation Sources at Indore. The facilities of IUC can be availed by scientists from any university.
- Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET), Ahmedabad, Estd. 1996
An Inter-University Centre of UGC the INFLIBNET serves towards modernization of Libraries, serves as Information Centre for transfer and access of information, supporting scholarships and learning and academic pursuits through a National Network of Libraries in around 264 Universities, Colleges and R&D Institutions across the country.
- Consortium for Educational Communication (CEC), New Delhi
The Consortium for Educational Communication popularly known as CEC is one of the Inter University Centres set up by the University Grants Commission. It has been established with the goal of addressing the needs of Higher Education through the use of powerful medium of Television alongwith the appropriate use of emerging Information Communication Technology (ICT).
Realizing the potential and power of television to act as means of Educational Knowledge dissemination, UGC started the Countrywide Classroom Programmes in the year 1984. For production of educational programmes, initially Media Centres were set up at 6 Universities. Subsequently CEC was setup in 1993 as a nodal agency to coordinate, guide & facilitate such educational programme production through its Media Centres. Today 22 Media Centres now known as Educational Multimedia Research Centres (EMRCs) are working towards achieving this goal under the umbrella of CEC.
- National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC), Bangalore
National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) was established by the UGC in September 1994 at Bangalore for evaluating the performance of the Universities and Colleges in the Country. NAAC’s mandate includes the task of performance evaluation, assessment and accreditation of universities and colleges in the country. The philosophy of NAAC is based on objective and continuous improvement rather than being punitive or judgmental, so that all institutions of higher learning are empowered to maximize their resources, opportunities and capabilities. Assessment is a performance evaluation of an institution and /or its units and is accomplished through a process based on self-study and peer review using defined criteria. Accreditation refers to the certification given by NAAC which is valid for a period of five years. At present the Assessment and Accreditation by NAAC is done on a voluntary basis.
Inter University Centre for International Studies
Osmania University Campus Hyderabad.
The UGC has established Inter-University Centres (IUCs) for centrally providing state-of-the-art equipment & facilities for the benefit of researchers working in different universities. So far, these IUCS have been established mainly in the filed of science and technology. The UGC proposed to establish the first IUC in the field of Humanities and Social Science by taking over academic and physical infrastructure available at Indo-American Centre for International Studies.
- Inter University Centre for Teacher Education, Kakinada
List of Central Universities
|1||Rajiv Gandhi University, Itanagar|
|2||Assam University, Silchar|
|3||Tezpur University, Tezpur|
|4||Central University of South Bihar, Patna|
|5||Mahatma Gandhi Central University, Patna|
|6||Nalanda University, Rajgir, Nalanda, Bihar. (established under Central Act)|
|7||Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur (Converted State University to Central University).|
|8||Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar|
|9||Central University of Haryana, Mahendragarh,|
|10||Central University of Himachal Pradesh, Dist. Kangra|
|JAMMU & KASHMIR|
|11||Central of University of Kashmir, Srinagar|
|12||Central University of Jammu, Jammu|
|13||Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi|
|14||Central University of Karnataka, Gulbarga|
|15||Central University of Kerala, Kasargod|
|16||Dr Harisingh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar (Converted from State University to Central University).|
|17||The Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, Amarkantak|
|18||Mahatma Gandhi Antarrashtriya Hindi Vishwavidyalay, Wardha|
|19||Central Agricultural University, Imphal|
|20||Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal|
|21||North Eastern Hill University, Shilong|
|22||Mizoram University, Aizawal|
|23||Nagaland University, Kohima|
|24||Central University of Orissa, Koraput|
|25||Central University of Punjab, Bathinda|
|26||Central University of Rajasthan, Ajmer|
|27||Sikkim University, Tadong, Gangtok.|
|28||Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur|
|29||Indian Maritime University, Chennai|
|30||Hyderabad University, Hyderabad|
|31||Maulana Azad National Urdu University, Hyderabad|
|32||The English and Foreign Languages University, Osmania University Campus, Hyderabad|
|33||Tripura University, Suryamanianagar, Agartala|
|34||Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh|
|35||University of Allahabad, Allahabad|
|36||Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow.|
|37||Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi|
|38||Rajiv Gandhi National Aviation University, Raebareli|
|39||Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University, Srinagar (Converted from State University to Central University).|
|40||Vishwa Bharati, Shantiniketan|
|NCT OF DELHI|
|41||Delhi University, Delhi|
|42||Indira Gandhi National Open University|
|43||Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar|
|44||Jawaharlal Nehru University|
|45||South Asian University, JNU Campus, (established under Central Act)|
|46||Pondicherry University, Pondicherry|
Central Universities Which Are Not Under Ministry of HRD (not funded by UGC)
1. SOUTH ASIAN UNIVERSITY
The South Asian University is an International University sponsored by the eight Member States of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). The eight countries are: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The formal Agreement to establish the University was signed on April 4, 2007. First academic session of the university started in August 2010 with two post-graduate academic programmes, one each in Economics and Computer Sciences.
2. NALANDA UNIVERSITY
Nalanda University was established in November 2010. The University came into being by a special Act of the Indian Parliament – a testimony to the important status that Nalanda University occupies in the Indian intellectual landscape.
3. CENTRAL AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY
The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), an apex body, which plans, undertakes aids, promotes, and coordinates agricultural education, research and extension education in India, constituted a research review committee in 1982 under the National Agricultural Research Project (NARP) to suggest the ways and means to strengthen the research capability of the NE Region. The committee was also given an additional mandate to look into the manpower needs of agriculture and allied sectors and suggests the remedial measures.
4. INDIAN MARITIME UNIVERSITY
The Indian Maritime University, came into being through an Act of Parliament (Act 22) on 14th November, 2008 as a Central University and is poised to play a key role in the development of trained human resource for the maritime sector. November 14th is celebrated as ‘IMU Day’ every year.
- RAJIV GANDHI NATIONAL AVIATION UNIVERSITY
- INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY
Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) was established in 1985 by an Act of Parliament with the dual responsibilities of (i) enhancing access and equity to higher education through distance mode and (ii) promoting, coordinating and determining standards in open learning and distance education systems. Since then, the IGNOU has undergone rapid expansion and emerged as an international institution in the field of Open and Distance Learning.
Association of Indian Universities (AIU)
The Association of Indian universities (AIU) is a registered society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 with membership of Indian Universities. It provides a forum for administrators and academicians of member universities to exchange views and discuss matters of common concern. It acts as a bureau of information exchange in higher education and brings out a number of useful publications, including the “Universities Handbook”, research papers and a weekly journal titled “University News”.
The present membership of the Association is 527 including seven Associate Members viz. Kathmandu University, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mauritius University, Mauritius, University of Technology, Mauritius, Royal University of Bhutan, Thimpu, Open University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Middle East University, UAE, and Semey State Medical University, Semey, Kazakhstan.
The Association is substantially financed from the annual subscription of the member universities. The Government of India, Ministry of Human Resource Development provides grants for meeting a part of the maintenance and development expenditure, including research studies, workshops, training programmes for university administrators, orientation programmes and creation of Data Bank of Global(of which Universities( the preliminary document Access to Global Universities is completed). AIU has Evaluation Division, Students Information Service Division, and Publication Sales Division, Sports Division to sponsor Inter-University Tournaments and World University Games:2007, Youth Affairs Division, Library and Documentation Division, Finance Division, Administration Division, Computer Division and Meeting Division.
The AIU is also empowered to grant Associate Membership to universities of the neighbouring countries of India.
1. Indian Council Of Social Science Research (ICSSR), New Delhi
The Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) was established in 1969 for promoting social science research, strengthening different disciplines, improving quality and quantum of research and its utilization in national policy formulation. To realize these objectives, the ICSSR envisaged development of institutional infrastructure, identifying research talents, formulating research programmes, supporting professional organizations and establishing linkages with social scientists in other countries. The ICSSR provides maintenance and development grants to various Research Institutes and Regional Centres across the country. Regional Centres have been set-up as extended arms of the ICSSR to support research and development of local talents and its programmes and activities in a decentralized manner.
Since 1976, the ICSSR has been carrying out surveys of research in different disciplines of social sciences.
With a view to give special emphasis to the promotion of social science research in the North Eastern Region, initiatives have been taken in the ICSSR to support research proposals and other activities.
2. Indian Council Of Philosophical Research (ICPR), New Delhi
Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR) was set up in 1977 by the Ministry of Education, Government of India as an autonomous organization for the promotion of research in Philosophy and allied discipline. The ICPR was born out of the conviction that Indian philosophy tradition deserves to have an exclusive and special agency in the country.
The Council has a broad-based membership comprising of distinguished philosophers, social scientists, representatives of the University Grants Commission, Indian Council of Social Science Research, Indian Council of Historic Research, Indian National Science Academy, the Central Government and the Government of Uttar Pradesh. The Governing Body (GB) and the Research Project Committee (RPC) are the main authorities of the council. These bodies are vested with well-defined powers and functions.
3. Project Of History Of Indian Science, Philosophy & Culture (PHISPC)
PHISPC was launched in the year 1990 under the aegis of Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR) with the basic objective of undertaking inter-disciplinary study so that inter-connection between Science, Philosophy and Culture as developed in the long history of Indian civilization, could be brought out in detail. From April 1, 1997, PHISPC was officially de-linked from Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR) for a greater autonomy to complete the Project by the stipulated period, and is now affiliated to Centre for Studies in Civilizations (CSC). Government of India has recognized CSC as the nodal agency for the purposes of funding the ongoing research project, PHISPC.
The major programme of PHISPC is to publish several volumes on the theme mentioned in the ‘Introduction’.
4. Indian Council Of Historical Research (ICHR) , New Delhi
Indian Council of Historical Research is an autonomous organization which was established under Societies Registration Act (Act XXI of 1860) in 1972. The prime objectives of the Council are to give a proper direction to historical research and to encourage and foster objective and scientific writing of history. The broad aims of the Council are to bring historians together, provide a forum for exchange of views between them, and give a national direction to an objective and rational presentation interpretation of history, to sponsor historical research programmes and projects and to assist institutions and organizations engaged in historical research. It has a broad view of history so as to include in its fold the history of Science and Technology, Economy, Art, Literature, Philosophy, Epigraphy, Numismatics, Archaeology, Socio-Economic formation processes and allied subjects containing strong historical bias and contents.
The ICHR has established two Regional Centres, one at Bangalore and the other at Guwahati with a view to reach out the far flung areas of the country.
5. National Council of Rural Institutes (NCRI), Hyderabad
The National Council of Rural Institute is a registered autonomous society fully funded by the Central Government. It was established on October 19, 1995 with its Headquarters at Hyderabad. Its main objectives are to promote rural higher education on the lines of Mahatma Gandhi’s vision for education so as to take up challenges of micro planning for transformation of rural areas as envisaged in National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986. In order to achieve its objectives, the NCRI has been identifying various programmes for providing support and financial assistance, to be taken up by suitable institutions including voluntary organizations.
Professional councils are responsible for recognition of courses, promotion of professional institutions and providing grants to undergraduate programmes and various awards. The statutory professional councils are:
- All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE)
- Medical Council of India (MCI)
- Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR)
- National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)
- Dental Council of India (DCI)
- Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) Indian
- Nursing Council (INC)
- Bar Council of India (BCI)
- Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH) Central
- Council for Indian Medicine (CCIM)
- Council of Architecture
- Distance Education Council (DEC)
- Rehabilitation Council
- National Council for Rural Institutes (NCRI)
- State Councils of Higher Education (SCHE)
A. All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE), Faridabad
All India council for Technical Education has been established under the AICTE Act, 1987. The council is authorized to take all steps that are considered appropriate for ensuring coordinated and integrated development of technical education and for maintenance of standards. The Council may, amongst other things:
- Coordinate the development of technical education in the country at all levels;
- Evolve suitable performance appraisal system for technical institutions and universities imparting technical education, incorporating norms and mechanisms for enforcing accountability;
- Laydown norms and standards for courses, curricula, physical and instructional facilities, staff pattern, staff qualifications, quality instruction, assessment and examinations;
- Grant approval for starting new technical institutions and for introduction of new course or programmes in consultation with the agencies
B. Medical Council of India (MCI), New Delhi
The Medical Council of India (MCI) was set up by the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956, amended in 1993. The council is empowered to prescribe minimum standards for medical education required for granting recognized medical qualifications by universities or medical institutions in India.
C. Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi
ICAR has established various research centres in order to meet the agricultural research and education needs of the country.It is actively pursuing human resource development in the field of agricultural sciences by setting up numerous agricultural universities spanning the entire country. It provides funding to nearly 30(Thirty) State Agricultural Universities, one Central University and several Deemed Universities. These universities employ about 26,000 scientists for teaching, research and extension education; of these over 6000 scientists are employed in the ICAR supported coordinated projects.
D. National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE), New Delhi
The National Council for Teacher Education is a statutory body set up under the National Council for Teacher Education Act, 1993 to facilitate planned and coordinated development of the teacher education system in the country, and for regulation and proper maintenance of norms and standards in the teacher education system. The mandate given to the NCTE is very broad and covers the whole gamut of teacher education programs including research and training of persons to equip them to teach at preprimary, primary, secondary and senior secondary stages in schools, and nonformal education, parttime education, adult education and distance (correspondence) education courses.
E. Dental Council of India (DCI), New Delhi
Dental Council of India, constituted under the Denstists Act, 1948, is a Statutory Body incorporated under an Act of Parliament to regulate the dental education and the profession of Dentistry throughout India. The Council is responsible for according recognition to dental degree awarded by various universities and also for maintaining uniform standards of dental education in India. The Dental Council of India (DCI) lays down minimum requirements in respect of staff and infrastructure and prescribes the syllabus and the scheme of examinations.
F. Pharmacy Council of India (PCI), New Delhi
The Pharmacy Council of India (PCI), also known as Central council, was constituted under section 3 of the Pharmacy Act, 1948. The PCI controls pharmacy education and profession in India up to graduate level. The Council prescribes the minimum standard of education for qualification as pharmacist.
G. Indian Nursing Council (INC), New Delhi
The Indian Nursing Council is a statutory body constituted under the Indian Nursing Council Act, 1947. The Council is responsible for regulation and maintenance of a uniform standard of training for Nurses, Midwives, Auxilliary NurseMidwives and Health Visitors.
H. Bar Council of India (BCI), New Delhi
The Bar Council of India is empowered to make rules to discharge its functions under the Advocates Act 1961. An important rulemaking power is with reference to laying down guidelines for the standards of professional conduct and etiquette to be observed by advocates. The Bar Council of India Rules may prescribe for a class or category of person entitled to be enrolled as advocate. The Bar Council of India can also specify the conditions subject to which an advocate must have the right to practise and the circumstances under which a person must be deemed to practise as an advocate in a court.
I. Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH), New Delhi
The Central Council of Homoeopathy was established under the Homoeopathy Central Council Act, 1973. The Council prescribes and recognizes all homeopathic medicine qualifications. Any university or medical institutions that desires to grant a medical qualification in homeopathy is required to apply to the Council. The Council is responsible for constitution and maintenance of a Central Register of Homoeopathy and for matters connected therewith. All universities and Board of medical institutions in India are required to furnish all information regarding courses of study and examination. The Council is empowered to appoint inspectors at examinations and visitors to examine facilities.
J. Central Council for Indian Medicine (CCIM), New Delhi
The Central Council of Indian Medicine is the statutory body constituted under the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970. This Council prescribes minimum standards of education in Indian Systems of Medicine viz. Ayurved, Siddha, Unani Tibb. The Council is responsible to maintain a Central Register on Indian Medicine and prescribes Standards of Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Code of Ethics to be observed by the practitioners. The Council is empowered to appoint medical inspectors to observe the conduct of examinations, and visitors to inspect facilities in colleges, hospitals and other institutions imparting instruction in Indian medicine.
K. Council of Architecture, New Delhi
The Council of Architecture (COA) was constituted under the provisions of the Architects Act, 1972, enacted by the Parliament of India. The Act provides for registration of Architects, standards of education, recognized qualifications and standards of practice to be complied with by the practicing architects. The Council of Architecture is responsible to regulate the education and practice of profession throughout India besides maintaining the register of architects. Any person desirous of carrying on the profession of “Architect” must register himself with Council of Architecture.
L. Distance Education Council, New Delhi
Distance Education Council was constituted under statute 28 arising from Section 25 of the Indira Gandhi National Open University Act, 1985. The Distance Education Council (DEC) is responsible for the promotion and coordination of the open university and distance education system and for determination of its standards. The Council provides academic guidelines to promote excellence, encourage use of innovative technologies and approaches, enable convergence of all systems and sharing of resources through collaborative networking for access to sustainable education, skill upgradation and training to all.
M. Rehabilitation Council of India, New Delhi
The Rehabilitation Council of India was set up as a registered society in 1986. However, it was soon found that a Society could not ensure proper standardization and acceptance of the standards by other Organizations. The Parliament enacted Rehabilitation Council of India Act in 1992. The Rehabilitation Council of India become Statutory Body on 22nd June 1993. The RCI Act was amended by the Parliament in 2000 to work it more broad based. The Act casts onerous responsibility on the Council. It also prescribes that any one delivering services to people with disability, who does not possess qualifications recognised by RCI, could be prosecuted. Thus the Council has the twin responsibility of standardizing and regulating the training of personnel and professional in the field of Rehabilitation and Special Education.
N. National Council for Rural Institutes, Hyderabad
National Council of Rural Institutes is an autonomous society fully funded by the Ministry of HRD, Govt. of India. Registered on 19th October, 1995 with its Headquarter at Hyderabad, It was established with a main objective of promoting Rural Higher Education for advancing rural livelihoods with the instrument of education on the lines of Mahatma Gandhiji’s revolutionary concept of Nai Talim, a functional education based on the values proposed by Gandhiji. Other objectives of the council include teachers training, extension and research by networking with policy making bodies such as UGC, AICTE and research organizations like CSIR, AICTE etc., in addition to encouraging other educational institutions and voluntary agencies to develop in accordance with Gandhian Philosophy of education.
O. State Councils of Higher Education
Following the National Policy on Education, respective state governments have established State Councils of Higher Education (SCHE). These councils prepare coordinated programmes of development of higher education in each state. Thus they seek to consolidate the efforts and investments of institutions of higher education with the state.
- Andhra Pardesh State Council for Higher
- Education Tamil Nadu State Council for Higher Education
- UP State Council for Higher Education
Other Institutions of Higher Learning
- Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla
The Indian Institute of Advanced Study (IIAS), Shimla was established in the year 1965, under the Societies Registration Act 1860 and housed in Rashtrapati Nivas, Shimla. It is a residential center for free and creative enquiry into the fundamental themes and problems of life and thought. The functions of the Institute are:
- To promote creative thought in areas which have deep human significance and to provide environment suitable for academic research and also to undertake, organize, guide and promote advanced research in Humanities, Social Sciences, Science, Technology and Development; Methodologies and Techniques;
- To provide facilities for advanced consultation, collaboration and exhaustive library and documentation facilities; including financial assistance for advanced study for teachers and other scholars for specific period to be determined in each case;
- To organize National Seminars, Lectures, Symposia, Conferences etc;
- To invite Visiting Professors and Visiting Scholars from India and abroad to deliver lectures or conduct research;
- To start, conduct, print, publish and exhibit any magazines, periodicals, newspapers, books, pamphlets, monographs or posters that may be considered desirable for the promotion of the object;
- To make arrangements for pooling the results of research, analyzing and adopting them in terms of their social relevance for the publication;
- To collaborate with other academic or governmental bodies in the dissemination of knowledge; and
- To award Fellowships for conduct of independent research by scholars and researchers.
- Dr. Zakir Husain Memorial College Trust, New delhi
Dr. Zakir Husain Memorial College Trust, Delhi was established in 1973 to manage and maintain Zakir Husain College (formerly Delhi College. Prime Minister is the Chairperson of the Trust and Minister of Human Resource Development is the Vice-Chairperson. Zakir Husain College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Delhi. Earlier the college was housed in an old and dilapidated historical building situated at Ajmeri Gate in the walled city. That campus was more than 300 years old. The college had the blessings of national leaders such as Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the First Prime Minister of India, and Late Dr. Zakir Husain, Former President of India. The University Grants Commission meets 95% of the recurring grants of the college and the balance 5% is meet by the Dr. Zakir Husain College Trust. Since the Trust has no resource of its own, grants are provided by the Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development. Besides, the maintenance expenditure of the College, the Trust and the University Grants Commission meet on 50:50 percent bases, the cost of the construction of the new campus, the land of which was allotted by the Ministry of Urban Development.
With the completion of the first phase of the college buildings, the college shifted to its new campus from the old building at Ajmeri Gate in 1991.
- Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeethya, New Delhi
Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, New Delhi was established in 1962 and declared a ‘Deemed to be University’ in 1987.
The Vidyapeetha provides courses of study from Shastri to Vidya Vachaspati (D. Litt.). Since 1997-98, Vidyapeetha is also offering diploma in Vedic and conducting refresher courses for teachers. It also offers programmes in faculties namely: Sahitya; Sanskrit; Darshan and Veda Vedanga. These faculties have eighteen departments viz. Sahitya, Puranetihasa, Prakit, Nyaya Vashaishik, Sankhya Yoga, Advaita Vedanta, Jain Darshan, Sarva Darshan, Mimamsa, Vishishtadvaita Vedanta, Veda, Dharam Shastra, Vyakaran, Paurohitya, Jyotish, Shiksha Shastra, and Shikshacharya. The Vidyapeeth also offers P.G. Diploma in Vastu Shastra and Medical Astrology.
- Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati
Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati was established in 1986 with the objective of preserving learning of Shastras as well as promotion of Sanskrit language, literature, philosophy through teaching and research. These institutions were declared as ‘Deemed to be University’ in the year 1987. A number of programmes and activities for realising their objectives in effective manner have been started by both these institutions. These institutions receive annual grants through the University Grants Commission for meeting their expenses. The Vidyapeetha provides courses of study in various disciplines ranging from Prak Shastri (Intermediate) to Vidya Varidhi (Ph.D) and Diploma and Certificate Courses. The Department Pedagogy of this Vidyapeetha is functioning as an Institute of Advanced Study in Education (IASE) as a measure to use modern technology. A computer center was established in Vidyapeeth to accelerate its publication activities. The Vidyapeetha has the following departments: Sahitya, Vyakarana, Nyaya, Jyotisha, Advaitavedanta, Dvaita Vedanta, Visistadvaita Vedanta, Research and Publication, Physical Education and Education (IASE).
- National University Of Education Planning And Administration (NUEPA), New Delhi
The National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA) is a Deemed to be University set up and fully financed by the Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development. The objectives of the Institute are to undertake, promote and coordinate research in educational planning and administration, provide training and consultancy services in this field, to train and orient key level functionaries as well as senior level administrators from the centre and states, to collaborate with other agencies, institutions and organisations, to provide facilities for training and research to other countries particularly of the Asian region in the field of educational planning and administration and to prepare, print and publish papers, periodicals and books, to share experience and expertise in the area of educational planning and administration with other countries and to conduct comparative studies for the furtherance of these objectives.
The NUEPA maintains a well stocked Library/Documentation Centre on Educational Planning and Administration and Inter Disciplinary subjects. It is perhaps one of the richest libraries in the field of Educational Planning and Management in the Asian Region. It serves the faculty, research scholars and participants of the various programmes, as also other organisations through Inter Library Loan system.
- Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan (RSKS), New Delhi
The Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan (RSKS) was established on October 15, 1970 as an autonomous organisation registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (Act XXI of 1860) for the development and promotion of Sanskrit all over the country. It was declared a Deemed to be University in May 2002. It is fully funded by Government of India. It functions as an apex body for propagation and development of Sanskrit and assists the Ministry of Human Resource Development in formulating and implementing various plans and schemes for the development of Sanskrit studies. It has assumed the role of a nodal body for the effective implementation of various recommendations made by the Sanskrit Commission set up by the Government of India, Ministry of Education in 1956 to consider the propagation and development of Sanskrit language and education in all its aspects.
Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA)
Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS), launched in 2013 aims at providing strategic funding to eligible state higher educational institutions. The central funding (in the ratio of 65:35 for general category States and 90:10 for special category states) would be norm based and outcome dependent. The funding would flow from the central ministry through the state governments/union territories to the State Higher Education Councils before reaching the identified institutions. The funding to states would be made on the basis of critical appraisal of State Higher Education Plans, which would describe each state’s strategy to address issues of equity, access and excellence in higher education.
The salient objectives of RUSA are to;
- Improve the overall quality of state institutions by ensuring conformity to prescribed norms and standards and adopt accreditation as a mandatory quality assurance framework.
- Usher transformative reforms in the state higher education system by creating a facilitating institutional structure for planning and monitoring at the state level, promoting autonomy in State Universities and improving governance in institutions.
- Ensure reforms in the affiliation, academic and examination systems.
- Ensure adequate availability of quality faculty in all higher educational institutions and ensure capacity building at all levels of employment.
- Create an enabling atmosphere in the higher educational institutions to devote themselves to research and innovations.
- Expand the institutional base by creating additional capacity in existing institutions and establishing new institutions, in order to achieve enrolment targets.
- Correct regional imbalances in access to higher education by setting up institutions in un‐served & underserved areas.
- Improve equity in higher education by providing adequate opportunities of higher education to SC/STs and socially and educationally backward classes; promote inclusion of women, minorities, and differently abled persons.
RUSA would create new universities through upgradation of existing autonomous colleges and conversion of colleges in a cluster. It would create new model degree colleges, new professional colleges and provide infrastructural support to universities and colleges Faculty recruitment support, faculty improvements programmes and leadership development of educational administrators are also an important part of the scheme. In order to enhance skill development the existing central scheme of Polytechnics has been subsumed within RUSA. A separate component to synergise vocational education with higher education has also been included in RUSA. Besides these, RUSA also supports reforming, restructuring and building capacity of institutions in participating state.
RUSA is implemented and monitored through an institutional structure comprising the National Mission Authority, Project Approval Board and the National Project Directorate at the centre and the State Higher Education Council and State Project Directorate at the state level.
- Central Open University
INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY
Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) was established in 1985 by an Act of Parliament with the dual responsibilities of (i) enhancing access and equity to higher education through distance mode and (ii) promoting, coordinating and determining standards in open learning and distance education systems. Since then, the IGNOU has undergone rapid expansion and emerged as an international institution in the field of Open and Distance Learning.
- State Open Universities
|1||Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Open University (BRAOU), Hyderabad, A.P. – (1982)|
|2||Vardhman Mahaveer Open University (VMOU), Kota, Rajasthan – (1987)|
|3||Nalanda Open University (NOU). Patna, Bihar – (1987)|
|4||Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University (YCMOU), Nashik, Maharashtra – (1989)|
|5||Madhya Pradesh Bhoj Open University (MPBOU), Bhopal, M.P. – (1991)|
|6||Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open University (BAOU), Ahmedabad, Gujarat – (1994)|
|7||Karnataka State Open University (KSOU), Mysore, Karnataka – (1996)|
|8||Netaji Subhas Open University (NSOU), Kolkata, W.B. – (1997)|
|9||U.P. Rajarshi Tandon Open University (UPRTOU), Allahabad, U.P. – (1998)|
|10||Tamil Nadu Open University (TNOU), Chennai, Tamil Nadu – (2002)|
|11||Pt. Sunderlal Sharma Open University (PSSOU), Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh – (2005)|
|12||Uttarakhand Open University, Haldwani, Distt. Nainitall, Uttarakhand|
|13||Krishna Kanta Handique State Open University, Guwahati, Assam|
State-wise List of fake Universities as in September, 2016
- Maithili University/Vishwavidyalaya, Darbhanga, Bihar.
- Varanaseya Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya, Varanasi (UP) Jagatpuri, Delhi
- Commercial University Ltd., Daryaganj, Delhi.
- United Nations University, Delhi.
- Vocational University, Delhi.
- ADR-Centric Juridical University, ADR House, 8J, Gopala Tower, 25 Rajendra Place, New Delhi – 110 008.
- Indian Institute of Science and Engineering, New Delhi.
- Badaganvi Sarkar World Open University Education Society, Gokak, Belgaum, Karnataka.
- John’s University, Kishanattam, Kerala.
- Kesarwani Vidyapith, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh.
- Raja Arabic University, Nagpur, Maharashtra.
- D.B. Sanskrit University, Trichi, Tamil Nadu.
- Indian Institute of Alternative Medicine, Kolkatta.
- Mahila Gram Vidyapith/Vishwavidyalaya, (Women’s University) Prayag, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh.
- Gandhi Hindi Vidyapith, Prayag, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh.
- National University of Electro Complex Homeopathy, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh.
- Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose University (Open University), Achaltal, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh.
- Uttar Pradesh Vishwavidyalaya, Kosi Kalan, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh.
- Maharana Pratap Shiksha Niketan Vishwavidyalaya, Pratapgarh, Uttar Pradesh.
- Indraprastha Shiksha Parishad, Institutional Area,Khoda,Makanpur,Noida Phase-II, Uttar Pradesh.
- Gurukul Vishwavidyala, Vridanvan, Uttar Pradesh.
- Nababharat Shiksha Parishad, Anupoorna Bhawan, Plot No. 242, Pani Tanki Road, Shaktinagar, Rourkela-769014.
* Bhartiya Shiksha Parishad, Lucknow, UP – the matter is subjudice before the District Judge – Lucknow
Disclaimer – The study materials are provided from the personal notes of a JRF Qualified. Need suggestions for any publishing or conceptual mistakes. Feel free to comments with your suggestions or clarifications.